Are you thinking about saffron farming? Do you like to inter the saffron business? Is it interesting for you? Is the saffron price very high in your country? We do recommend you to start it as soon as possible.
When you decide to inter a business, it’s so important to know about the production process of related product.
Even if you don’t intend to inter the production process, it would be very helpful for inter other parts of business like marketing, sales, etc.
So, in this page we will talk about the saffron cultivation and will explain different accepts of it. Here, we will discuss about the appropriate whether, Soil, and the time of saffron bulb plant and saffron flower harvest.
Also, we will explain the whole procedure of saffron cultivation in details and will talk about planting saffron at home or greenhouse.
Finally, we will tell you about after harvest process to help you to reach highest possible quality.
How to do saffron farming
Crocus Sativus belongs to Iris family and it grows in mild climate. Sun shine is very important for this plant.
Warm and sunny summers, helps the saffron flower to grow better.
The temperature of the region could vary from -50 up to 40 centigrade degree. To start the saffron cultivation, you will need a farm with appropriate soil and saffron bulbs to plant.
In fact, one of the most important parts in saffron planting is finding good saffron bulbs. Saffron bulbs should be without Infection of ticks and fungi.
Best time to find good saffron bulbs is summer.
Please be sensitive about the selecting good bulbs. Because these saffron bulbs will be planted for 4-10 years. Also, try to plant bulbs as soon as possible in summer. Because collecting bulbs together in fresh air will spoil them and will decrease the quality and quantity of harvest, dramatically.
The best soil for saffron farm is sandy and clay soil with PH around 7-8. The saffron farm soil should be fertile and the farm should have rested for last 3 years, at least. Also, you should remove weeds from the saffron farm, every year.
For planting saffron bulbs, 4-5 person cooperate to complete the process. First person dig the earth up to 15-20 centimetres by a shovel.
Planting the bulbs in this depth will protected them from heatstroke in hot summers and frostbite in winters for next years.
Next, two persons make saffron bulbs group. Normally, each group contain 3, 5, or 15 bulbs. These two person should note to select healthy and nice bulbs for bulb groups. Finally, the fourth person put the saffron bulb groups in the digged hollows.
Crocus sativus needs many nutritions to grow. To meet these needs, don’t use fresh animal manure for saffron farm. Instead, rotten animal manure could be very helpful for saffron flower grow.
Normally, each hectare needs 30-50 tones rotten animal manure plus 200 kilograms chemical fertilizer like phosphorus and potash.
Another key item in saffron farming is the special method of irrigation. After saffron planting the farm should be irrigated immediately and next time is in fall.
Best time for first watering of autumn is 15 days before that saffron flower stems come out.
This plant is very sensitive and sooner or later irrigation will affect the harvest. In fact, Crocus Sativus is a dry and tropical plant and don’t need much water.
Don’t expect to have a good harvest in first year. In fact, your saffron farm will have a reasonable result in second year and next year up to 4-10 years. In Persian lands saffron flowers comes out from the ground in November and the harvest time lasts for 3-4 weeks. At this time, saffron farm create a beautiful and lovely purple sight. Also, you will smell the amazing scent of saffron and its flower in the farm and its neighborhood.
Saffron farmers start to pick saffron flowers in early morning to prohibit dejection of saffron flowers by sunlight.
Picking saffron flowers will repeat and repeat from first day to 10-15 days. Every day, after collecting saffron flowers Man and woman workers start to separate red parts from the other parts of the saffron flowers.
Although, each part of saffron flower have its benefits and usages, we are focused on red stigma that is known as saffron threads.
Finally, red strings will store in dark, dry and clean room and after a few days it would be ready to use or pass quality control process to sell.
This is almost the end of the story of saffron farm.
How to cultivate saffron at home?
For planting saffron at home, the story is similar to saffron cultivation in farm. But the scale is different and it depends on the space that you have access to it.
This space could be a garden, croft, greenhouse or even a tiny flower pot.
Just do the math and use the enough soil, saffron bulbs, fertilizers, water proportion to your scale. Of course, it’s much easier than farming saffron in a one hectare farm. Note that by planting 1 kg saffron bulb, you will harvest 2 grams saffron in first year. And each year it would be more and more.
In seventh year, the size of saffron bulb would be three times bigger than first year.
So if you planted saffron bulbs in a pot, you should transfer it to a bigger place before the harvest season of third year.